Price Maintenance Agreements Definition

Price maintenance agreements refer to under-the-table deals between manufacturers and retailers to set a fixed price for a specific product or service. These agreements are, in essence, an anti-competitive practice that eliminates price competition and drives up prices for consumers.

In general, price maintenance agreements can be classified into two types: vertical and horizontal. Vertical price maintenance agreements involve manufacturer-retailer relationships, where the manufacturer sets a fixed retail price for a particular product or service. On the other hand, horizontal price maintenance agreements involve agreements between retailers to set a fixed price for a specific product, eliminating price competition and discouraging innovation.

For example, a manufacturer may enter into a price maintenance agreement with a retailer to set a fixed price for a particular product. This agreement may also include the retailer committing to not advertise or discount the product to maintain the agreed-upon price. In return, the manufacturer promises to provide exclusive access to the product or better margins.

However, price maintenance agreements are illegal under antitrust laws in many countries, including the United States. The antitrust authorities view these agreements as a violation of free market principles, harming consumers and destroying any possibility of market price competition.

In the US, a landmark Supreme Court case, Leegin Creative Leather v. PSKS Inc., established that price maintenance agreements are subject to the rule of reason. In other words, they are not per se unlawful but must be judged on a case-by-case basis to determine whether they promote or suppress competition.

Companies that are found guilty of engaging in price maintenance agreements are subject to significant penalties, including fines, legal fees, and criminal charges in severe cases. Beyond legal and financial consequences, price maintenance agreements can also damage the reputation and brand image of companies as they are perceived as anti-consumer actions.

In conclusion, price maintenance agreements are a highly controversial topic in the business world. While such agreements may be tempting for manufacturers and retailers to increase profits, they are ultimately illegal, violate free market principles, and harm consumers. As a copy editor, staying informed about the legality and ethical implications of such agreements is crucial to producing content that accurately represents the industry.

Electrical Maintenance Contract Sample

If you are a homeowner or a business owner, it is important to have proper electrical maintenance contracts in place. Electrical maintenance contracts are agreements between a service provider and a client that outline the services to be provided and the terms and conditions of the agreement. These contracts ensure that your electrical systems are kept in good working order, preventing costly repairs and downtime.

One of the most important things to consider when drafting an electrical maintenance contract is the scope of services that will be provided. This can include things like regular inspections of electrical systems, routine maintenance and repairs, and emergency services. It is also important to outline the frequency of these services and the expected timetables for completion.

Another key consideration is the pricing and payment structure for the maintenance services. This should include clear pricing structures for the various services provided, as well as any billing and payment terms. Often, these contracts will outline a set monthly fee for ongoing maintenance, and additional fees for any additional work that may be required.

To help you get started with your own electrical maintenance contract, we have included a sample template below. Keep in mind that this template should be customized to fit your specific needs and requirements.

Electrical Maintenance Contract Sample Template

This Electrical Maintenance Contract (“Agreement”) is entered into between [Service Provider Name], a [State] corporation with its principal place of business at [Address], and [Client Name], a [State] corporation with its principal place of business at [Address].


The service provider shall provide the following electrical maintenance services to the client:

– [List of services to be provided]

Pricing and Payment

The client shall pay the service provider for the services outlined in this agreement as follows:

– [List of specific fees for each service provided]

– [Billing and payment terms]

Term and Termination

This agreement shall be effective as of the date it is signed by both parties and shall continue until terminated in writing by either party.

Limitation of Liability

The service provider shall not be liable for any damages or losses resulting from the performance of its obligations under this agreement.

Governing Law

This agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of [State].

In conclusion, having a solid electrical maintenance contract in place is critical for any homeowner or business owner. This protects both parties and ensures a long-term, successful relationship between the client and the service provider. By using the sample template provided here as a starting point, you can customize your own electrical maintenance contract to meet your specific needs.

Horse Share Agreement Bhs

If you`re looking to share a horse with someone else, it`s important to have a clear and comprehensive agreement in place. The British Horse Society (BHS) provides guidance on horse share agreements and offers a template agreement that can be used as a starting point.

The BHS horse share agreement covers a range of important issues, including the responsibilities of each party, the financial arrangements, and how the horse`s welfare will be maintained. By following the guidelines set out in the agreement, you can ensure that the horse share arrangement is as fair, transparent, and successful as possible.

One of the key aspects of the BHS horse share agreement is the division of responsibilities between the sharers. This includes things like who will be responsible for feeding, mucking out, and exercising the horse, as well as who will be responsible for veterinary bills, insurance, and other costs. It`s important that these responsibilities are clearly defined from the outset to avoid any disputes or misunderstandings later on.

Another important aspect of the agreement is the financial arrangements. This includes things like how much each sharer will contribute to the horse`s upkeep, as well as how any unexpected costs will be dealt with. It`s important to be realistic about the costs involved in horse ownership and to ensure that both parties are able to meet their financial obligations.

Finally, the BHS horse share agreement also covers issues related to the horse`s welfare. This includes things like how the horse will be cared for in the event of an emergency, who will make decisions about the horse`s health and well-being, and how any disagreements will be resolved. By ensuring that the horse`s welfare is a top priority, both sharers can work together to provide the best possible care for the horse.

Overall, the BHS horse share agreement provides a useful framework for those looking to share a horse with someone else. By following the guidelines set out in the agreement and ensuring that both parties are clear about their responsibilities and obligations, you can create a successful and rewarding horse share arrangement. So if you`re considering sharing a horse with someone else, be sure to use the BHS horse share agreement as a starting point.

Difference between Agreement and Ratify

When it comes to legal terms, it`s easy for people to become confounded with words that seem interchangeable. Two of those words are « agreement » and « ratify. » While they may seem similar, they actually have different meanings. In this article, we`ll explore the difference between these two words.


An agreement is a mutual understanding between two or more parties. It`s a verbal or written contract that outlines the terms and conditions of a deal. An agreement is created through negotiations and discussions between the parties involved.

For instance, two friends might come to an agreement about sharing an apartment. They would discuss the terms of the lease, their respective responsibilities, and other important details. Once they have reached a mutual understanding, they would sign an agreement that outlines those details.


Ratification, on the other hand, is the process of formally approving and sanctioning something. It`s an official recognition of a decision or agreement that was made by a representative or governing body. Ratification is often used in a legal or diplomatic context.

For example, if two countries negotiate a treaty, they would draft an agreement with the terms and conditions of the treaty. Once both countries sign it, they would then ratify it. The ratification process would involve the countries` respective governing bodies, such as the legislative branch, approving the treaty.

The Difference

The difference between agreement and ratification is that an agreement is an understanding that is reached between two or more parties, while ratification is the official recognition and approval of that agreement. An agreement can be made verbally or in writing, while ratification is always done in a formal and official capacity.

In Conclusion

It`s important to understand the difference between agreement and ratification, especially if you`re involved in negotiations or legal processes. While the words may seem similar, they have different meanings and implications. An agreement is an understanding, while ratification is the official recognition and sanctioning of that agreement. So, the next time you`re involved in a legal or diplomatic discussion, be sure to use the right terminology!

Australia Reciprocal Health Agreement

Australia Reciprocal Health Agreement: What it Means for You

As an Australian travelling abroad, you may have heard about the Reciprocal Health Agreement (RHA) that exists between Australia and certain countries. But what exactly does this mean for you when it comes to accessing healthcare while overseas?

Firstly, it’s important to understand that the RHA is only in place with a select number of countries, including the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Italy, Ireland, the Netherlands, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Malta, and Belgium. Essentially, this agreement allows Australian residents to access some healthcare services for free or at a reduced cost while travelling to these countries.

So, what services are covered by the RHA? Generally, the agreement covers medically necessary treatment that cannot wait until you return to Australia, such as emergency treatment for a sudden illness or injury. This can include doctor consultations, hospital treatment, and prescription medication.

It’s worth noting that the RHA does not cover all medical costs you may incur while overseas, such as elective procedures or ongoing treatment for pre-existing conditions. Additionally, it is important to check with your travel insurance provider to ensure that you have adequate coverage for any unexpected medical expenses.

To access healthcare services under the RHA, you will need to present your Australian passport and Medicare card to the healthcare provider. In some countries, you may also be required to complete additional paperwork or provide evidence of your residency status in Australia.

It’s also important to note that the RHA may differ between countries, and the services covered and eligibility requirements may vary. Therefore, it is recommended that you research the specific RHA terms for your destination country prior to travelling.

In summary, the Australia Reciprocal Health Agreement can provide peace of mind for Australians travelling to certain countries by allowing them to access some necessary healthcare services at a reduced cost. However, it is important to understand the limitations of the agreement and ensure that you have adequate travel insurance coverage to protect against any unexpected medical expenses.

A Mortgage Is a Legal Agreement between a Borrower and a Quizlet

A mortgage is a legal agreement between a borrower and a lender that involves a significant amount of money and a long-term commitment. As such, it is essential that we understand the basics of what a mortgage is, how it works, and what we should consider before entering into such an agreement. In this article, we will explore what a mortgage is, how it works, and some key factors to consider before entering into a mortgage agreement.

What is a Mortgage?

At its most basic level, a mortgage is a legal agreement between a borrower and a lender which allows the borrower to purchase a property owned by the lender, typically a bank or other financial institution. The loan agreement outlines the terms and conditions of the loan, including the interest rate, loan amount, and repayment schedule. The borrower agrees to make regular payments to the lender over a specified period until the loan is fully repaid, and the property is transferred to the borrower.

How Does a Mortgage Work?

To obtain a mortgage, a borrower typically applies to a lender for a loan. The lender will review the borrower`s creditworthiness, income, and other financial information to determine if they are eligible for a loan and what interest rate and repayment terms they will be offered. If the borrower is approved for the loan, they will sign a mortgage agreement, which outlines the terms and conditions of the loan.

The borrower will typically make monthly payments to the lender, which include both principal and interest. The principal is the amount borrowed, while the interest is the cost of borrowing the money. Over time, the amount of principal decreases as the loan is repaid, while the interest decreases as well. The loan is generally repaid over a period of 15 to 30 years, depending on the terms of the loan agreement.

Factors to Consider Before Entering into a Mortgage Agreement

Before entering into a mortgage agreement, there are a number of factors that borrowers should consider to ensure that they are making an informed decision. These factors include:

1. Loan Amount – Know what you can afford before you start looking for a mortgage. This will help ensure that you are not borrowing more than you can afford to repay.

2. Interest Rate – The interest rate is a key factor in determining the cost of borrowing. Make sure you understand what interest rate you are being offered and how it will impact your monthly payments.

3. Repayment Term – The repayment term is the length of time it will take to repay the loan. Consider how long you want to be paying off your mortgage and what impact it will have on your finances.

4. Closing Costs – There are a number of closing costs associated with obtaining a mortgage, including appraisal fees, title fees, and legal fees. Make sure that you understand what these costs are and how they will impact your finances.


In conclusion, a mortgage is a legal agreement between a borrower and a lender that involves a significant financial commitment. It is important to understand what a mortgage is, how it works, and what factors to consider before entering into such an agreement. By taking the time to educate yourself about mortgages, you can make an informed decision that will help you achieve your homeownership goals.

Agreement in Nepali Translation

Agreement in Nepali Translation: Tips for Ensuring Accurate and Effective Communication

When it comes to translating content from one language to another, one of the most important aspects to consider is agreement. Agreement refers to the way that different parts of a sentence – such as nouns, verbs, and adjectives – must agree with one another in terms of gender, number, and other grammatical features. In Nepali translation, getting agreement right is crucial for ensuring that your message is clear, accurate, and effective. In this article, we’ll explore some of the key tips for achieving agreement in Nepali translation.

Understand the Basics of Nepali Grammar

To achieve agreement in Nepali, you first need to have a solid understanding of the language’s grammar rules. Nepali is a complex language with many different rules and structures, so it’s important to spend time studying its grammar and syntax. Some of the key concepts to focus on include:

– Gender: Nepali has two genders – masculine and feminine – which affect the agreement of many words, such as nouns and adjectives.

– Number: Nepali has singular and plural forms, which also affect agreement in various parts of speech.

– Case: Nepali has a system of grammatical cases, which affect the endings of nouns, adjectives, and other words.

Pay Close Attention to Agreement Markers

In Nepali, there are many different markers – such as suffixes, prefixes, and particles – that indicate agreement between different parts of a sentence. These markers are essential for achieving accurate agreement in Nepali translation. Here are a few examples of agreement markers in Nepali:

– Gender markers: Masculine nouns often end in -a or -o, while feminine nouns often end in -i or -e. Adjectives also take different endings depending on the gender of the noun they modify.

– Number markers: Plural forms of nouns often end in -haru or -haruko, while plural forms of verbs often have different endings (e.g. -chan for present tense).

– Case markers: Nepali has seven different cases, each of which has its own set of markers for nouns, adjectives, and other parts of speech.

Be Consistent in Your Use of Agreement

Another key aspect of achieving agreement in Nepali translation is consistency. This means making sure that all parts of a sentence – including nouns, verbs, adjectives, and other elements – agree with one another correctly and consistently. One way to achieve this consistency is to create a checklist of agreement rules and markers, and use it consistently throughout your translation process. You should also review your work carefully to ensure that all the pieces fit together smoothly and accurately.

Use Professional Translation Services

If you want to ensure accurate and effective communication in your Nepali translations, it’s essential to work with a professional translation service. An experienced translator can help you navigate the complexities of Nepali grammar and achieve accurate agreement throughout your content. They can also provide valuable feedback and suggestions for improving your translations and ensuring that your message is clear and effective.

In conclusion, achieving agreement in Nepali translation is essential for effective communication. By understanding the basics of Nepali grammar, paying close attention to agreement markers, being consistent in your use of agreement, and working with a professional translator, you can ensure that your translations are accurate, effective, and impactful.